Working with OpenStack Images

Datetime:2016-08-22 23:45:15          Topic: OpenStack  Centos           Share

Creating Images

For creating images, I recommend the virt-builder tool that ships with RHEL based distributions and possibly others:

virt-builder centos-7.2 --format qcow2 --install "cloud-init" --selinux-relabel

Note the use of the --selinux-relabel option. If you specify --install but do not include this option, you may end up with instances that treats all attempts to log in as security violations and blocks them.

The cloud-init package is incredibly useful (discussed later) but isn’t available in CentOS images by default, so I recommend adding it to any image you create.

For the full list of supported targets, try virt-builder -l . Targets should include CirrOS as well as several versions of openSUSE, Fedora, CentOS, Debian, and Ubuntu.

Adding Packages to an existing Image

On RHEL based distributions, the virt-customize tool is available and makes adding a new package to an existing image simple.

virt-customize  -v -a myImage --install "wget,ntp" --selinux-relabel

Note once again the use of the --selinux-relabel option. This should only be used for the last step of your customization. As above, not doing so may result in an instance that treats all attempts to log in as security violations and blocks them.

Richard Jones also has a good post about updating RHEL images since they require subscriptions. Just be sure to use --sm-unregister and --selinux-relabel at the very end.

Logging in

If you haven’t already, tell OpenStack about your keypair:

nova keypair-add myKey --pub-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

Now you can tell your provisioning tool to add it to the instances it creates. For Heat , the template would look like this:

myInstance:
  type: OS::Nova::Server
  properties:
    image: { get_param: image }
    flavor: { get_param: flavor }
    key_name: myKey

However almost no image will let you log in, via ssh or on the console, as root. Instead they normally create a new user that has full sudo access. Red Hat images default to cloud-user while CentOS has a centos user.

If you don’t already know which user your instance has, you can use nova console-log myImage to see what happens at boot time.

Assuming you configured a key to add to the instance, you might see a line such as:

ci-info: ++++++Authorized keys from /home/cloud-user/.ssh/authorized_keys for user cloud-user+++++++

which tells you which user your image supports.

Customizing an Instance at Boot Time

This section relies heavily on the cloud-init package. If it is not present in your images, be sure to add it using the techniques above before trying anything below.

Running Scripts

Running scripts on the instances once they’re up can be a useful way to customize your images, start services and generally work-around bugs in officially provided images.

The list of commands to run is specified as part of the user_data section of a Heat template or can be passed to nova boot with the --user-data option:

myNode:
  type: OS::Nova::Server
  properties:
    image: { get_param: image }
    flavor: { get_param: flavor }
    user_data_format: RAW
    user_data:
      #!/bin/sh -ex

      # Fix broken qemu/strstr()
      # https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1269529#c9
      touch /etc/sysconfig/64bit_strstr_via_64bit_strstr_sse2_unaligned

Note the extra options passed to /bin/sh The e tells the script to terminate if any command produces an error and the x tells the shell to log everything that is being executed. This is particularly useful as it causes the script’s execution to be available in the console’s log ( nova console-log myServer ).

When Scripts Take a Really Long Time

If we have scripts that take a really long time, we may want to delay the creation of subsequent resources until our instance is fully configured.

If we are using Heat, we can set this up by creating SwiftSignal and SwiftSignalHandle resources to coordinate resource creation with notifications/signals that could be coming from sources external or internal to the stack.

signal_handle:
  type: OS::Heat::SwiftSignalHandle

wait_on_server:
  type: OS::Heat::SwiftSignal
  properties:
    handle: {get_resource: signal_handle}
    count: 1
    timeout: 2000

We then add a layer of indirection to the user_data: portion of the instance definition using the str_replace: function to replace all occurences of “wc_notify” in the script with an appropriate curl PUT request using the “curl_cli” attribute of the SwiftSignalHandle resource.

myNode:
  type: OS::Nova::Server
  properties:
    image: { get_param: image }
    flavor: { get_param: flavor }
    user_data_format: RAW
    user_data:
      str_replace:
        params:
          wc_notify:   { get_attr: ['signal_handle', 'curl_cli'] }
        template: |
          #!/bin/sh -ex

          my_command_that --takes-a-really long-time

          wc_notify --data-binary '{"status": "SUCCESS", "data": "Script execution succeeded"}'

Now the creation of myNode will only be considered successful if and when the script completes.

Installing Packages

One should avoid the temptation to hardcode calls to a specific package manager as part of a script as it limits the usefulness of your template. Instead, this is done in a platform agnostic way using the packages directive.

Note that instance creation will not fail if packages fail to install or are already present. Check for any required binaries or files as part of the script.

user_data_format: RAW
user_data:
  #cloud-config
  # See http://cloudinit.readthedocs.io/en/latest/topics/examples.html
  packages:
    - ntp
    - wget

Note that this will NOT work for images that need a Red Hat subscription. There is supposed to be a way to have it register, however I’ve had no success with this method and instead I recommend you create a new image that has any packages listed here pre-installed.

Installing Packages and Running scripts

The first line of the user_data: section ( #config or #!/bin/sh ) is used to determine how it should be interpreted. So if we wish to take advantage of scripting and cloud-init , we must combine the two pieces into a multi-part MIME message.

The cloud-init docs include a MIME helper script to assist in the creation of complex user_data: blocks.

Simply create a file for each section and invoke with a command line similar to:

python ./mime.py cloud.config:text/cloud-config cloud.sh:text/x-shellscript

The resulting output can then be pasted in as a template and even edited in-place later. Here is an example that includes notification for a long running process:

user_data_format: RAW
user_data:
  str_replace:
    params:
      wc_notify:   { get_attr: ['signal_handle', 'curl_cli'] }
    template: |
      Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="===============3343034662225461311=="
      MIME-Version: 1.0
      
      --===============3343034662225461311==
      MIME-Version: 1.0
      Content-Type: text/cloud-config; charset="us-ascii"
      Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
      Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="cloud.config"

      #cloud-config
      packages:
        - ntp
        - wget

      --===============3343034662225461311==
      MIME-Version: 1.0
      Content-Type: text/x-shellscript; charset="us-ascii"
      Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
      Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="cloud.sh"
      
      #!/bin/sh -ex

      my_command_that --takes-a-really long-time

      wc_notify --data-binary '{"status": "SUCCESS", "data": "Script execution succeeded"}'




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