ES6 - Let and Const

Datetime:2016-08-23 01:04:08          Topic: ECMAScript           Share

Let and Const

let and const are two new identifiers for storing values in ES6 which you can additionally use to declare variables

‘let’ and ‘const’ throw more exceptions as they behave more strictly than ‘var’

  • let is block scoped and is hoisted to the top of it’s block, unlike var which is hoisted to the top of it’s function or script
  • const is also block scoped and is also hoisted to the top of it’s block
    • it’s worth noting that in ES6 functions are block scoped instead of lexically scoped

      ‘var`

  • let does not create a property on the global object
  • const creates immutable variables, whilst let create mutable ones
  • a duplicate declaration of let will throw a Reference Error within a block or function
    • this is also known as TDZ or temporal dead zone
  • Basic rules to follow :
    • don’t use var , or leave it as a signal in untouched legacy code.
    • use let when you want to rebind.
    • prefer const for variables that never change.
    • don’t blindly refactor legacy code when replacing var with let and const .

How let works:

function myfunc() {
   if ( true ) {
     let x = 54321;
   }
   console.log( x ); // => ReferenceError: x is not defined  
 }
// legacy ES5
 function myfunc() {
   if ( true ) {
     var x = 54321;
   }
   console.log( x ); // => 54321 
 }

Using block scoped let :

let outer = "outer";
{
  let inner = "inner";
    { 
      let nested = "nested"
    }
  console.log( inner ); // => you can access `inner`
  console.log( nested ) // => throws error  
} 
// you can access `outer` here
// you cannot access `inner` and `nested` here

More scoping rules for variables declared by let . you can clearly see that when refactoring:

function letBlocks {
  let a = 23;
  if ( true ) {
    let a = 56;
    console.log( a ); // => 56
  }  
  console.log( a ); // => 23
}

How const works. Variables declared with const are immutable, but note that the values aren’t just the declarations:

const foo = '123';
foo = '321';
console.log( foo ); // TypeError

// changing const values
const myarr = [1,2,3,4];
myarr.push(5);
console.log( myarr ); // => 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

const obj = {};
obj.prop = 123;
console.log( obj ); // => { Object: prop: 123 }




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