Introduction: Active Directory integration with your private cloud
Active Directory integration provides significant value for most of the private cloud deployments. However, for a subset of scenarios, it is desirable to be able to decouple your deployment from Active Directory. In prior Windows Server releases, we introduced a number of features to minimize the dependence of your private cloud on Active Directory. Some of these features include:
Bootstrapping without Active Directory: Introduced in Windows Server 2012 and allows you to boot your private cloud without Active Directory dependencies. This is especially useful when you have lost power to your entire datacenter and have to bootstrap. It therefore enables you to virtualize your entire datacenter, including domain controllers.
Cluster Shared Volumes independent of Active Directory: Cluster Shared Volumes, in Windows Server 2012 and beyond, have no dependence on Active Directory. This is especially advantageous in deployments in branch offices and off-site deployments.
Active Directory-detached clusters: In Windows Server 2012 R2, Failover Clusters can be created without computer objects in Active Directory, thereby decreasing your deployment and maintenance complexity. However, this deployment model still requires all the nodes in your private cloud to be joined to a single domain.
Read the entire article here, What’s new in failover clustering: #04 Workgroup and multi-domain clusters